The resident population is about 24 thousand people. Visitors, in at least some areas of the park are about 2.8 million per year.
The area of the Natural Park of Southwest Alentejo and Costa Vicentina encompasses several towns and villages. Over the centuries the population was dedicated to fishing and agriculture and livestock, but tourism is an increasingly important activity, particularly in places such as Porto Covo and Vila Nova de Milfontes and throughout the Algarve coast park. The industrial sector is virtually nonexistent.
The main tourist activities are: hiking, orienteering, climbing, paragliding, horseback riding, kayaking, surfing, windsurfing, diving and mountain biking.
Some villages and park sites have great historical and cultural interest, with many national monuments and buildings classified as public interest, with particular emphasis on the area of Sagres and Cape St. Vincent.
The main threats to biodiversity of the park are the greenhouses and grass plantations in the coastal zone, and inside the eucalyptus plantations. It is further noted that the great industrial activity in Sines, and the extension of its port, also influence air quality and the area of water.